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2016.3.10
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‰‰‘t‰ο’m
‰οκFˆκ‹{Žs–―‰οŠΩ@‘εƒz[ƒ‹

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„`„‚„{„y„u „‚„p„ƒ„ƒ„{„p„x„ „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„€„{ „~„p „~„p„Š„u„} „ƒ„p„z„„„u „r„€„|„Š„u„q„~„„} „€„q„‚„p„x„€„} „‚„p„ƒ„{„‚„p„ƒ„‘„„ „r„p„Š„y „q„…„t„~„y „r„€„ƒ„‡„y„„„y„„„u„|„Ž„~„„}„y „{„‚„p„ƒ„{„p„}„y „y „„€„t„p„‚„‘„„ „~„u„€„„y„ƒ„…„u„}„€„u „~„p„ƒ„|„p„w„t„u„~„y„u. „H„t„u„ƒ„Ž „ƒ„p„}„„u „t„u„Š„u„r„„u „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „M„€„ƒ„{„r„ „~„u „„„€„|„Ž„{„€ „„€„|„~„€„ƒ„„„Ž„ „…„t„€„r„|„u„„„r„€„‚„‘„„ „r„p„Š „y„~„„„u„‚„u„ƒ, „~„€ „y „€„„‚„p„r„t„p„„„ „|„„q„„u „t„p„w„u „ƒ„p„}„„u „ƒ„}„u„|„„u „€„w„y„t„p„~„y„‘ „y „†„p„~„„„p„x„y„y. „I„ƒ„„„€„‚„y„y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„€„{, „{„€„„„€„‚„„u „r„ „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „„‚„€„‰„„„u„„„u „„€„}„€„s„…„„ „„€„‰„…„r„ƒ„„„r„€„r„p„„„Ž „ƒ„u„q„‘ „~„p„ƒ„„„€„‘„‹„y„} „s„y„s„p„~„„„€„} „r „ƒ„u„{„ƒ„u. „@ „†„€„„„€ „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„€„{ „„„€„|„Ž„{„€ „t„€„„€„|„~„‘„„ „r„p„Š„u „…„t„€„r„€„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„y„u. „H„t„u„ƒ„Ž „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „N„€„r„s„€„‚„€„t„p „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „O„t„u„ƒ„ƒ„ „€„„„{„‚„€„„„ „t„|„‘ „r„p„ƒ „t„r„u„‚„Ž „r „}„y„‚ „ƒ„|„p„t„€„ƒ„„„‚„p„ƒ„„„~„„‡ „…„t„€„r„€„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„y„z, „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „B„€„‚„€„~„u„w„p „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „V„p„‚„Ž„{„€„r„p „„€„}„€„s„…„„ „B„p„} „€„‹„…„„„y„„„Ž „ƒ„u„q„‘ „€„q„€„w„p„u„}„„} „y „r„ƒ„u„s„t„p „w„u„|„p„~„~„„} „}„…„w„‰„y„~„€„z, „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „K„‚„€„r„€„s„€ „Q„€„s„p „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „Q„€„ƒ„„„€„r„p „‚„p„ƒ„ƒ„{„p„w„…„„ „ƒ„p„}„„u „€„„„{„‚„€„r„u„~„~„„u „y„ƒ„„„€„‚„y„y „y„x „ƒ„r„€„u„z „w„y„x„~„y, „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „S„„}„u„~„y „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „P„€„|„„„p„r„ „€„„„{„‚„€„„„ „t„|„‘ „r„p„ƒ „~„p„…„{„… „„€„|„…„‰„u„~„y„‘ „y „t„€„ƒ„„„p„r„|„u„~„y„‘ „…„t„€„r„€„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„y„‘ „€„„ „ƒ„u„{„ƒ„p.
Girls Room - „P„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „M„€„ƒ„{„r„: <a href=Link„„‚„€„ƒ„„„y„„„…„„„{„y „~„y„{„€„|„p„u„r„p</a>

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„N„p„Š „ƒ„p„z„„ <a href=Link „„€„}„€„w„u„„ „B„p„} „„€„t„€„q„‚„p„„„Ž „r„ƒ„v „ƒ„p„}„€„u „|„…„‰„Š„u„u „y „r„t„€„‡„~„€„r„|„‘„„‹„u„u! „R„p„}„„u „{„‚„p„ƒ„y„r„„u „„€„x„t„‚„p„r„|„u„~„y„‘ „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „~„p„„y„ƒ„p„~„ „ƒ „t„…„Š„€„z, „y „„„€„|„Ž„{„€ „t„|„‘ „r„p„ƒ!
„B „~„p„Š„y„‡ „‚„…„q„‚„y„{„p„‡ „r„ „~„p„z„t„v„„„u „}„~„€„s„€„u:
„„€„x„t„‚„p„r„|„u„~„y„‘ „ƒ „D„~„v„} „Q„€„w„t„u„~„y„‘, „ƒ „_„q„y„|„u„u„}, „~„p„‰„y„~„p„‘ „€„„ „r„p„Š„y„‡ „x„~„p„{„€„}„„‡ „y „x„p„{„p„~„‰„y„r„p„‘ „ƒ„p„}„„}„y „q„|„y„x„{„y„}„y „‚„€„t„ƒ„„„r„u„~„~„y„{„p„}„y;
„„€„x„t„‚„p„r„|„u„~„y„‘ „„€ „s„€„t„p„}, „‰„„„€„q„ „r„„t„u„|„y„„„Ž „r„€„x„‚„p„ƒ„„ „„€„x„t„‚„p„r„|„‘„u„}„€„s„€, „t„€„{„p„x„p„„„Ž „‰„„„€ „s„€„t„p „‡„€„‚„€„Š„y „r„ƒ„u „y „„€-„ƒ„r„€„u„}„…

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„B„u„‰„~„„u „ƒ„ƒ„„|„{„y „ƒ „„„€„„€„r„„‡ „‚„u„ƒ„…„‚„ƒ„€„r
„B„„z„t„y „r „„„€„ 10 „y „„€„|„…„‰„p„z „„„‚„p„†„y„{!
„Q„p„x„}„u„‹„u„~„y„u „r„u„‰„~„„‡ „„„‚„p„ƒ„„„€„r„„‡ „ƒ„ƒ„„|„€„{
„ƒ „„„y„ˆ „€„„ +1000 „t„€ +45 000 !
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„R„„„‚„€„y„„„u„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„€ „y „‚„u„}„€„~„„, „‰„y„„„p„z„„„u „ƒ„p„z„„ <a href=Link

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„P„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„ƒ„„„r„€ „ƒ„r„u„„„€„t„y„€„t„~„„‡ „„„p„q„|„€ „r„p„|„„„, „q„u„s„…„‹„y„‡ „ƒ„„„‚„€„{, „„„p„q„|„€ „t„|„‘ „@„H„R. <a href=Link

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„p„t„‚„u„ƒ„p „‚„u„}„€„~„„ „‚„p„t„y„p„„„€„‚„€„r
rerewtt

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„M„~„€„s„€ „y„~„†„€„‚„}„p„ˆ„y„y „€ „ƒ„„„‚„€„y„„„u„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„u „~„p „t„p„‰„u <a href=Link

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„M„~„€„s„€ „y„~„†„€„‚„}„p„ˆ„y„y „€ „ƒ„„„‚„€„y„„„u„|„Ž„ƒ„„„r„u „~„p „t„p„‰„u <a href=Link

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„P„‚„p„x„t„~„y„{„y „y „t„~„y „‚„€„w„t„u„~„y„‘, „{„€„„„€„‚„„u „}„ „€„„„}„u„‰„p„u„}, „‰„p„‹„u „r„ƒ„u„s„€ „~„u „€„q„‡„€„t„‘„„„ƒ„‘ „q„u„x „ˆ„r„u„„„€„r. „W„r„u„„„ „€„ƒ„„„p„r„|„‘„„„ „{„‚„p„ƒ„€„‰„~„„u „r„€„ƒ„„€„}„y„~„p„~„y„‘ „€ „{„p„w„t„€„z „t„p„„„u. „T „|„„q„€„s„€ „‰„u„|„€„r„u„{„p „y„}„u„u„„„ƒ„‘ „ˆ„r„u„„„€„{, „{„€„„„€„‚„€„}„… „€„~ „€„„„t„p„v„„ „„‚„u„t„„€„‰„„„u„~„y„u „y„x „s„‚„€„}„p„t„~„€„s„€ „‚„p„x„~„€„€„q„‚„p„x„y„‘. „B „~„p„Š„u„} „q„€„s„p„„„€„} „ˆ„r„u„„„€„‰„~„€„} „p„ƒ„ƒ„€„‚„„„y„}„u„~„„„u „r„ „~„p„z„t„u„„„u „ˆ„r„u„„„ „~„p „ƒ„p„}„„z „y„x„„ƒ„{„p„~„~„„z „r„{„…„ƒ.
„E„ƒ„|„y „r„ „~„u „…„r„u„‚„u„~„ „r „ˆ„r„u„„„€„‰„~„„‡ „„‚„u„t„„€„‰„„„u„~„y„‘„‡ „‰„u„|„€„r„u„{„p, „{„€„„„€„‚„€„}„… „„‚„u„t„~„p„x„~„p„‰„p„„„„ƒ„‘ „ˆ„r„u„„„, „}„€„w„u„„„u „€„ƒ„„„p„~„€„r„y„„„Ž „r„„q„€„‚ „~„p „{„‚„p„ƒ„y„r„u„z„Š„y„‡ „q„…„{„u„„„p„‡. „N„p„Š„y „q„…„{„u„„„ „ƒ„€„q„‚„p„~„ „€„„„„„~„„}„y „†„|„€„‚„y„ƒ„„„p„}„y. „A„…„{„u„„ „y„x „‘„‚„{„y„‡ „‚„€„x, „~„u„w„~„„‡ „€„‚„‡„y„t„u„z, „„‚„u„{„‚„p„ƒ„~„„‡ „‡„‚„y„x„p„~„„„u„} „y „t„‚„…„s„y„‡, „…„t„y„r„|„‘„„‹„y„‡ „€„ƒ„€„q„€„z „{„‚„p„ƒ„€„„„€„z „ˆ„r„u„„„€„r, „q„…„t„u„„ „‡„€„‚„€„Š„y„} „„€„t„p„‚„{„€„}, „{„p„{ „t„p„}„u, „„„p„{ „y „t„w„u„~„„„|„Ž„}„u„~„…. „E„ƒ„|„y „r„ „w„u„|„p„u„„„u „t„€„ƒ„„„p„r„y„„„Ž „‚„p„t„€„ƒ„„„Ž „t„u„r„…„Š„{„u, „„„€ „{„…„„y„„„u „{ „q„…„{„u„„„…„{ „„‚„y„}„u„‚„… „}„‘„s„{„…„ „y„s„‚„…„Š„{„…. „P„€„t„€„q„~„„z „ƒ„„‚„„‚„y„x „ƒ„„„p„~„u„„ „„€ „t„…„Š„u „{„p„w„t„€„z „„‚„u„t„ƒ„„„p„r„y„„„u„|„Ž„~„y„ˆ„u „w„u„~„ƒ„{„€„s„€ „„€„|„p.
„Q„€„x„ „ƒ„‰„y„„„p„„„„ƒ„‘ „ƒ„p„}„„}„y „„€„„…„|„‘„‚„~„„}„y „„‚„u„t„ƒ„„„p„r„y„„„u„|„‘„}„y „†„|„€„‚„. „D„p„‚„‘ „‚„€„x„, „r„ „~„p„r„u„‚„~„‘„{„p „…„s„€„t„y„„„u „|„„q„€„}„… „‰„u„|„€„r„u„{„…. „^„„„y „„‚„u„{„‚„p„ƒ„~„„u „ˆ„r„u„„„ „y„}„u„„„ „~„u„„€„r„„„€„‚„y„}„„z „p„‚„€„}„p„„, „{„€„„„€„‚„„z „}„€„w„u„„ „‚„p„t„€„r„p„„„Ž „t„|„y„„„u„|„Ž„~„€„u „r„‚„u„}„‘. „T „~„p„ƒ „~„p „ƒ„{„|„p„t„u „r „~„p„|„y„‰„y„y „€„s„‚„€„}„~„„z „r„„q„€„‚ „ƒ„€„‚„„„€„r „‚„€„x „‚„p„x„~„€„€„q„‚„p„x„~„€„z „r„„ƒ„€„„„ „y „ˆ„r„u„„„€„r„€„z „s„p„}„}„.<a href=Link„{„…„„y„„„Ž „t„u„Š„u„r„„u „ˆ„r„u„„„</a>

„N„p „r„€„„‚„€„ƒ„ „{„p„ƒ„p„„‹„y„u„ƒ„‘ „„€„t„q„€„‚„p „q„…„{„u„„„p „y„|„y „ƒ„€„x„t„p„~„y„‘ „u„s„€ „„€ „ƒ„r„€„u„}„… „x„p„{„p„x„… „€„„„r„u„„„‘„„ „~„p„Š„y „†„|„€„‚„y„ƒ„„„.
„K„T„P„O„N „R„K„I„D„K„I: FORUM

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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„L„…„„„‰„Š„y„u „„„‚„u„~„p„w„u„‚„ „€„„ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „… „~„p„ƒ „r„ „}„€„w„u„„„u „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „†„y„„„~„u„p„ƒ„p, „‚„„q„p„|„{„y , „t„|„‘ „€„„„t„„‡„p, „r„ƒ„u „t„|„‘ „€„‡„€„„„ . Link

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?Sample Four: Analysis of Four Articles
The samples below are papers by students, unless specifically noted. They are examples of &quot;A&quot; degree undergraduate creating or entry-level professional deliver the results. To get a even better idea of how this type of paper is written, you will desire to take a look by any means the samples. Then compare the samples to every single other and to what the &quot;Basics &quot; part of this chapter says.
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Unless otherwise noted, sample papers do not necessarily meet all specifications an individual instructor or professional supervisor may have: ask your instructor or supervisor. On top of that, the samples solitary spaced to save room; however, a proper manuscript given to an instructor or supervisor normally should be double spaced with margins established at or close to 1&quot; unless another format has long been requested.
Sample 1: Critical Examine of A person Book
Inver Hills College
Rough-draft Critical Examination
Eng 1114-91, Spring 2006
„Q„R„Qc 2006 by Laura Beres
A Critical Assessment of Man„Q„R„Qcs Search for Meaning
In Man„Q„R„Qcs Search for Meaning . Viktor E. Frankl tells the very personal story of his undergo as a prisoner in a very concentration camp during the Holocaust. He presents this story around the type of an essay in which he shares his arguments and analysis as a doctor and psychologist in the process as a former prisoner. This paper will assess Frankl„Q„R„Qcs story in addition as his main arguments, and will evaluate the good of Frankl„Q„R„Qcs creating and focus on any areas of weakness in the story.
This section consists of a summary of Man's Search . Frankl begins his book by stating that his purpose in creating the book isn't to existing facts and details within the Holocaust, but to deliver a personal account of your everyday life of the prisoner living inside of a concentration camp. He states, „Q„R„QcThis tale is simply not concerned with the good horrors, which have now been described often enough (though less often believed), but„Q„R„Qcit will try to answer this question: How was everyday life in the concentration camp reflected from the mind of your average prisoner?„Q„R„Qc (21). Frankl then goes on to describe the three stages of the prisoner„Q„R„Qcs psychological reactions to being held captive in the concentration camp.
The 1st phase, which occurs just after the prisoner is admitted to the camp, is shock. The second phase, occurring once the prisoner has fallen into a routine in just the camp, is a particular of apathy, or „Q„R„Qcthe blunting in the emotions also, the feeling that a particular could not anymore„Q„R„Qc (42). The third phase, which occurs after the prisoner has long been liberated from the camp, is really a period of „Q„R„Qcdepersonalization„Q„R„Qc, in which „Q„R„Qceverything appears unreal, unlikely, as in the dream„Q„R„Qc (110). Within this phase, unveiled prisoners also believe a perception of „Q„R„Qcbitterness and disillusionment„Q„R„Qc when returning to their former lives (113). Frankl describes every of these phases applying psychological theory and provides you with personal experiences to exemplify just about every in the stages.
As described over, Frankl„Q„R„Qcs main purpose for producing this book is to existing and analyze the average prisoner„Q„R„Qcs psychological reactions to the everyday life of the concentration camp. His three main arguments are his presentation and analysis of every with the psychological stages that the average concentration camp prisoner experiences: shock, apathy and depersonalization. He bases his analyses of each and every of these stages relating to the steps on the prisoners and his unique personal thoughts and reactions as he professional life inside a concentration camp.
For example, Frankl argues that the second phase of apathy forces „Q„R„Qcthe prisoner„Q„R„Qcs life down to your primitive level„Q„R„Qc (47) in which „Q„R„Qcall efforts and all emotions ended up centered on a particular task: preserving one„Q„R„Qcs unique life which within the other fellow„Q„R„Qc (47). He bases this theory on events he witnessed when living from the camp himself, and states, „Q„R„QcIt was natural that the desire for food was the major primitive instinct roughly which mental life centered. Let us observe the majority of prisoners when they happened to operate near every other and had been, for once, not closely watched. They would immediately initiate discussing food„Q„R„Qc (48). Frankl continuously takes advantage of examples from his experiences inside of the concentration camp to illustrate and strengthen his psychological arguments throughout the textual content.
This section comprises an evaluation of Frankl„Q„R„Qcs book. Firstly, the author really is a survivor for the Holocaust and was a prisoner of the concentration camp himself, which gives him the personal insight to be able to comment in the psychological conditions of an average prisoner. However, this also creates a bias and for the reason that of his personal expertise, he is unable to be entirely goal in crafting his analysis. Frankl acknowledges this bias while in the beginning of his book, by stating, „Q„R„QcOnly the man inside knows. His judgments may not be goal, his evaluations may be out of proportion. This is inevitable. An attempt must be made to avoid any personal bias, which is the real trouble of the book of this kind„Q„R„Qc (24-25). Although he is aware of this bias, it creates a partiality that will sway the readers throughout his story and it serves as a minor weakness in his composing style.
A second weakness in Frankl„Q„R„Qcs producing is inside of the assumptions he quite often makes to prove his point. He makes overarching generalizations several times in his book, making statements that, although may have been true for himself and those all-around him, would most likely not have been true for every prisoner in every concentration camp during the Holocaust. For example, in a single instance, he says, „Q„R„QcThe prisoner of Auschwitz. around the first of all phase of shock, did not fear death„Q„R„Qc (37). It is very bold to say that no prisoner of Auschwitz, a single for the most well-known and deadly concentration camps from the Holocaust, did not fear death, as death was all all over them and was a very real threat in their daily lives. Although he could perhaps haven't feared death during his phase of shock, it is impossible for him to guarantee that no prisoner was in any respect fearful of death during this to start with psychological phase, and for him to make overarching assumptions like this can be a weakness to the overall top notch of his book.
Finally, Frankl in many instances becomes too technical and verbose in his producing style, which makes it very hard for your average reader to understand. 1 example of this is as follows. Frankl states, „Q„R„QcI remember an incident when there was an occasion for psychotherapeutic focus on the inmates of the whole hut, due to an intensification of their receptiveness merely because of the certain external situation„Q„R„Qc (102). This sentence, which is overly wordy and complicated, makes it difficult with the average reader to understand exactly what he is saying. A reader can easily get frustrated when trying to decipher the author„Q„R„Qcs meaning due to overly complicated language, and this serves as a third weakness of Frankl„Q„R„Qcs crafting.
This critical overview has evaluated the book Man„Q„R„Qcs Search for Meaning by Viktor E. Frankl. The psychological theories that Frankl presents are very interesting and he does a strong job of illustrating these theories with his private personal experiences. However, his producing is weakened by the presence of bias, the overarching assumptions he occasionally makes, and his quite often overly technical and verbose language.
Sample Two: Critical Report of A person Essay
SPECIAL NOTES: This critical assess examines three essays and has added resources.
University of Minnesota Eng 3027, State-of-the-art Expository Producing Critical Review article „Q„R„Qc 2000 by Sarah Pearson
A Critical Critique of Three Articles on Music and Feminist Pedagogy by Sarah Pearson
The importance of feminism in music has come to the forefront in scores of colleges and universities. However, for several reasons, a single of which is the fact that scholars hold differing views for the relevancy and appropriateness of feminism within the musical realm, feminism has not been included as rapidly in music as in other fields. Neuls-Bates features another reason for this lack of speed: &quot;The discipline of women's studies continues to be slower to cultivate inside discipline of music. mainly since from the necessary, time-consuming tasks involved in obtaining performances of composer's works&quot; (265). In other words, music is slow to incorporate womens studies as a result of of your intense effort required to change an by now well-respected, dependable curriculum. This critical review article will examine three different articles on this issue and evaluate their contents determined by a list of criteria. Every single of your articles, published in College Music Symposium . is written from the feminist viewpoint. The authors discuss the importance of as well as a feminist curriculum inside of the college setting, noting the positive benefits of utilising it while in the classroom. Their main argument is the fact that not enough of this type of teaching is being employed in conservatories. An individual article is properly written with supporting details and potential solutions, whilst the opposite two include only general observations and offer no solutions.
Some background about this issue is useful. Prior to the 1970s, white middle- and upper- class males dominated colleges. On the grounds that of this, womens issues often were being ignored. While in the early 1970's, joint efforts ended up made by women across the country to try to persuade colleges and universities to incorporate womens issues into their curriculum. They felt that this incorporation would fill a vacancy for women attempting to earn a degree. So many people believed that exploring the numerous ways women helped to shape society would result in higher self-esteem among women and give them a greater understanding for the world. Slowly the schools began implementing programs for women and started utilizing textbooks that focused much more attention on womens achievements in particular fields. Now a lot of departments inside of colleges have at least a very small part of their curriculum devoted to women. Feminists spent countless hours convincing departments to include these issues. It has particularly been a struggle for both equally feminists and music departments to agree on what subjects should or should not be included in an presently well-established industry.
A summary in the articles shows that the earliest an individual, &quot;Feminist Scholarship together with the Subject of Musicology: I&quot; by Jane M. Bowers, discusses the issues of feminism and its position in music. Published in College Music Symposium . this article focuses for the subject of music history. Bowers argues that the &quot;great&quot; male composers dominate music history, and almost nothing is alleged about women composers. That music history lacks a feminist viewpoint is just not surprising, she argues, as nearly all the disciplines while in the arts have very little emphasis on womens issues. A single reason to the void is a variety of scholars have felt that it was not suitable to incorporate womens issues into their particular area. According to Bowers, &quot;<T>he scope of musicology is. not defined by lived social realities, and hence its purview, like those of philosophy and literature, is similarly less suited to the incorporation of women. &quot; (83). She believes this presents a dilemma to feminists, who must now explain why womens studies are relevant to music. Bowers goes on to discuss historical ideas about women and their purpose in music. She cites recent discoveries about the influence of women musicians inside nineteenth century. In her summary she restates the argument that there's a lack of research and studies being done on women in music. She suggests searching for ways to emphasize womens compositions by focusing over the differences somewhere between men and womens compositional styles, and exploring within the instrumental music of women.
The second article, &quot;Women, Women's Studies, Music and Musicology: Issues of Pedagogy and Scholarship&quot; by Susan Cook, also focuses about the importance of for example women in research. Also published in College Music Symposium . this article contends that women's studies will want to be included in alot more music courses. Due to the fact that of the lack of research of women in music, teachers are unable to integrate the subject into their curriculum. Even with some research to choose from, professors are unsure how to utilise it. According to Woods, whom Cook quotes, &quot;We keep going to operate in a conservative methodology, whether compensatory or contributory, that is definitely not necessarily feminist and not specifically female. Rather it tends to relate and relocate women to the accepted canon of really good artists and effective works&quot; (95). Instead of incorporating women into the canon, Cook believes professors are pushing them to the fringes, this includes them only when time will enable. Cook then mentions numerous studies done a short time ago that have helped advance feminist ideas on the classroom. She feels this is regarded as a begin the process of, but a good deal a whole lot more research is needed in order to press professors into working with the knowledge in their lectures.
Cook also discusses ways in which feminism has changed teaching styles. She believes the traditional lecture has begun to give way to an open forum, with the teacher leading the discussion. You can find also an emphasis on equality in all classroom situations: for example, teachers offer students alot more freedom concerning grades, class management, and lecture (98).
The third article, also published in College Music Symposium , is &quot;Software of Feminist Pedagogy: An Introduction to the Issues&quot; by Barbara Coeyman. It looks at ways of incorporating feminism into the existing curriculum. Unlike with the very first two articles, the author does not emphasize research and its importance to changing the curriculum; rather, she focuses on available outcomes if feminism is applied on the classroom. Her main argument is usually that the present music curriculum will be enhanced and can lead to an enlightened classroom if feminism is applied.
Throughout the article, Coeyman attempts to justify feminist pedagogy by contrasting it to traditional teaching. She argues that &quot;<traditional>teaching] emphasizes formal constructions, static content, and context-free artistic creation&quot; (77), whereas feminist pedagogy emphasizes students' creativity and encourages professors to become much more involved inside actual learning procedure. Coeyman further promotes feminist pedagogy by discussing its four main principles, which, according to her, include diversity, a voice for anybody, responsibility, and software to real life situations. She suggests several ways of applying these ideas through personalizing classroom lectures, which include women composers within the canon, and allowing students to &quot;learn by doing&quot; ( 83).
Analysis of Arguments
All three of these articles contain similar arguments about feminism and music education. Very first, the authors believe that far more feminist issues really want to be incorporated into music lessons. Second, they imply that a music students education just isn't wholly extensive without the feminist viewpoint. Lastly, Cook and Coeyman argue that feminist pedagogy can unite students and faculty inside and outside the house belonging to the classroom.
Considerably more in Curriculum
Very first, every single author states that music courses do not emphasize womens issues enough and ought to begin incorporating a great deal more into the curriculum. Bowers states, &quot;If even more than scant attention were being paid to the interaction of music history with social history, in the process as to the attempt to include music as an aspect of and in relation to culture during the large-areas which are virtually neglected within just musicology-women would also become a further relevant subject for study&quot; (84). By this statement Bowers shows her belief that feminist ideas could be incorporated into music curriculum if scholars would exert a minor a little more effort.
Both equally Cook and Coeyman agree with Bowers that most music courses do not destination enough emphasis on women. The main argument among instructors is always that there's not enough research accessible to be able to incorporate it to the curriculum. However, according to others these types of as Neuls-Bates, &quot;<A>t the current time there are really sufficient materials to implement courses about women in music. &quot; (Zaimont 265). Thus the authors' arguments in this particular regard have some validity.
Total Education Second, the authors imply that a student's education seriously isn't comprehensive without the feminist viewpoint. As neither directly state this, the two Cook and Coeyman allude to this idea. Cook closes her article by stating that feminist pedagogy can increase to the overall musical expertise (98). Coeyman follows the same lines by stating that this includes feminism inside the classroom can inspire the two students and faculty and can benefit the overall person (77, 85). Bowers, unlike the very first two, does not focus over the education aspect, yet she promotes this idea through her constant emphasis on continued research of women. Commenting with a survey of articles focusing on women, she states, &quot;Their central concern was the degree to which research on women had achieved a destination inside the mainstream of your disciplines where it had previously been absent&quot; (81). This statement and numerous others throughout the article indicate her belief that research is important and can improve the overall education of the person.
A ll of these authors argue fervently that feminist ideas can enhance music students' education. However, none offer any evidence that this is true.
Unity of Students and Faculty
Lastly, the articles by Cook and Coeyman offer the idea that feminist pedagogy can unite students and faculty. They both of those propose this through discussion of alternative classroom teaching techniques.
Cook suggests that a considerably more nontraditional lecture format can grant an encouraging atmosphere in which students can learn. She states that nontraditional teachers can &quot; help all students to get hold of their private answers and give birth to their private ideas&quot; (97). Thus she is arguing that if teachers use feminist methods, they will stimulate students to think for themselves and producing superior communication around the classroom.
Coeyman also argues that letting students become significantly more involved from the classroom permits much better communication relating to the professor and student, designing a feeling of shared power (83), again a feminist method. By emphasizing these and other feminist methods, these types of as a relaxed, non-threatening classroom expertise, these authors promote the belief that feminist pedagogy can bring the professor and student together.
Although all of these articles offer well-supported arguments, they also have weaknesses. At times a number of them appear to lack stable solutions to the problem, tend to reveal bias towards the feminist viewpoint, and may exaggerate the oppression of women composers in music.
Lack of Stable Solutions
A lack of sound solutions appears to exist in Bowers' and Cook's articles. Bowers, in particular, fails to offer a good choice as to how to incorporate a good deal more feminist issues into the music history curriculum. Although she suggests alternatives to research within just music, she omits discussing solutions to changes within the existing curriculum.
Like Bowers, Cook also neglects to furnish any solutions to the problem. She focuses for the differences concerning traditional teaching and feminist pedagogy, discussing doable styles of alternative teaching methods. Though she notes that change is necessary, she fails to offer suggestions as to how these changes could be integrated into the classroom (98). In contrast to the very first two articles, Coeyman does focus on attainable ways to begin incorporating feminism into music courses. She suggests by using women's compositions during lessons, offering non-musical courses that can amplify students' music courses, and giving students a larger voice in how a class is run (83-84). Combined with some aspects of traditional teaching, these methods could help enhance music students' education.
All three articles are also infused by using a bias towards feminism. In her article, Bowers portrays this bias when she states, &quot;However inadvertent the neglect of women ensuing from these patterns of musicological research, the result has perpetuated the myth of female insignificance&quot; (83). Her use of your words &quot;neglect&quot; and &quot;female insignificance&quot; present her potent feelings about feminist issues.
Cook and Coeyman use this same type of wording in their articles, but also reveal their bias through ignoring the positives of traditional teaching. They comment only around the negative aspects, making their suggestions appear alot more valid. Coeyman mainly employs this tactic when she describes ways to change traditional lecturing. For instance, as quoted before, she labels traditional studies as &quot;static,&quot; &quot;context-free,&quot; and &quot;dictatorial&quot; (77). By by using these terms she degrades standard teaching and enhances her very own ideas about alternative methods.
Each individual author also exaggerates the oppression of women musicians inside the nineteenth century. Initially, Bowers continually comments on her belief that women musicians haven't been treated fairly throughout history. She states, &quot;Further, women's compositions have been frequently reviewed in gender-biased ways, and overt discrimination. was made use of against women who tried to enter male domains&quot; (87). This statement is only partly true. Clara Schumann was an individual example of the woman who composed and performed across Europe. According to Green, &quot;Clara Schumann. was the acknowledged peer belonging to the top male performers on the day&quot; (sixty). A great deal of other women musicians ended up also well-respected within the music area these as Fanny Mendelssohn, Cecile and Natalie Chaminade, Amy Beach, and Sofia Gubaidulina. Bowers fails to acknowledge the impact these women had on music and ignores the freedom they had in performing and composing.
Cook and Coeyman do not directly exaggerate the oppression. However, they often allude to it.
Cook comments on continued open hostility to women's studies programs in higher education, despite the fact that Coeyman describes the area of music as a white male- dominated scene (Cook 93; Coeyman 75). Although neither openly state it as Bowers does, they even now assume that all women were being excluded from music and have just fairly recently begun to be accepted. Contrary to this, in recent years most universities have felt it imperative to include womens studies in their curriculum. According to the College Music Society, for example, &quot;To combat the trend toward tunnel vision <in>music] and to ensue that students and faculty integrate knowledge from quite a few disciplines, educational necessities demand to be expanded and reinvigorated&quot; (6). Contrary to Cook and Coeymans beliefs, a lot music departments have realized their curricula must have to include greater than just an individual race or genders point of check out.
This critical look at has considered three different articles. Just about every article focuses for the issue of feminism and its position inside college music setting. Bowers and Cook seem within the research aspects, observing that a lack of research inhibits inclusion of women on the classroom. Coeyman concentrates around the importance of which includes women in history lectures and features suggestions for alternative teaching methods. While you are all three articles are perfectly written, they fail to discuss the benefits of traditional teaching, focusing only within the positives of feminism. They believe feminism will foster growth on the education of a variety of students. According to Ropers-Huilman, &quot;<F>eminist teaching provides you with choices for teachers and administrators as they seek to educate and encourage respectful communities grounded in difference&quot; (19). However true this may be, to say that this will only happen by choosing a feminist pedagogy is one-sided, and this one-sidedness is evident around the arguments of all three authors articles. Their arguments insinuate that feminist teaching is the only option to improving a music schools curriculum. This misleads the reader and focuses the attention on feminism even when ignoring all other viewpoints.
Bowers, Jane M. &quot;Feminist Scholarship as well as Industry of Musicology: I.&quot; College Music Symposium 29 (1989): 81-92.
Coeyman, Barbara. &quot;Apps of Feminist Pedagogy to the College Music Major Curriculum: An Introduction to the Issues.&quot; College Music Symposium 36 (1996): 73-90.
College Music Society. Music within the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Reassessment . Boulder. College Music Society: 1989.
Cook, Susan C. &quot;Women, Women„Q„R„Qcs Studies, Music and Musicology: Issues of Pedagogy and Scholarship.&quot; College Music Symposium 29 (1989): 93-100.
Green, Lucy. Music, Gender, Education . Cambridge. University of Cambridge Push, 1997.
Neuls-Bates, Carol. &quot;Crafting a College Curriculum with the Study of Women in Music.&quot; The Musical Woman: An International Perspective . Ed. Judith Lang Zaimont. Westport. Greenwood Push, 1983. 265-284.
Ropers-Huilman, Becky. Feminist Teaching in Theory and Practice . New York. Teachers College Push, 1998.
Banner, Lois. Women in Fashionable America: A Brief History . two nd ed. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984.
Kimball, Roger. Tenured Radicals . New, York: Harper &amp; Row, 1998.
Langer, Cassandra. A Feminist Critique . New York: Harper Collins, 1996.
Levine, Lawrence. The Opening for the American Mind . Boston: Beacon Push, 1996.
Mark, Michael L. Contemporary Music Education . 3 rd ed. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster Macmillan, 1996.
Sample Four: Critical Analyze of Four Essays Working with APA Style
SPECIAL NOTES: This critical assessment of four professional journal essays is in APA format. There is absolutely no bibliography, as all resources are sufficiently referenced during this semi-formal paper. Main subtitles are underlined; sub-subtitles have all letters capitalized.
A Critical Assessment of Studies Showing the Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Insulin Misuse among IDDM Patients
This critical evaluate discusses four studies that examine the prevalence of eating disorders and eating problems among insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients plus the misuse of insulin involved. While in the British Medical Journal article „Q„R„QcEating Disorders in Young Adults with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Study„Q„R„Qc, the findings of Christopher Fairburn, Robert Peveler, Beverly Davies, J. I. Mann, and Richard Mayou suggest that eating disorders are not a good deal more usual among IDDM patients compared to non-diabetics. The benefits presented by Anne Rydall, Gary Rodin, Marion Olmsted, Robert Denenyi, and Denis Daneman (1997) inside of the New England Journal of Medicine article „Q„R„QcDisordered Eating Behavior and Microvascular Complications in Young Women with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc, imply that there's a standard „Q„R„Qccoexistence of eating disorders and IDDM among young females„Q„R„Qc (p. 1849). With the Journal for the American Dietetic Association article „Q„R„QcInsulin Misuse by Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated by Eating Disorders Does Not Favorably Change Body Weight, Body Composition, of Body Fat Distribution„Q„R„Qc, Sandra Affenito, Nancy Rodriquez, Jeffrey Backstrand, Garry Welch, and Cynthia Adams suggest that there's a large prevalence of eating disorders among the IDDM population. Inside Journal of American Academy of Child and Adult Psychiatry article „Q„R„QcEating Disorders and Maladaptive Dietary Insulin Management among Youths with Childhood-onset Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc Myrna Pollock, Maria Kovacs, and Denise Charron-Prochownik suggest that eating disorders and problems are not as general among young adults as it is thought. All within the articles imply that insulin misuse is regarded as a typical method for controlling weight among IDDM patients with eating disorders or problems. Two with the studies have potent factors that are worth noting. Every study has at least a single weakness. These include bias, contradiction, and limits in the study.
According to the World Book Encyclopedia (1995), people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM or type 1 diabetes) have insufficient quantities of insulin in their bodies, and they are unable to try and shop glucose immediately. This leads to buildup of glucose during the blood. Injecting insulin lets the body to implement glucose normally. Despite a strict diet, the daily dose of insulin may cause speedy weight gain in some IDDM patients, and this may trigger and eating disorder. The mix of IDDM and eating disorders is rather prevalent. According to Bonnie Irvin (1997), „Q„R„Qcit seriously isn't known if eating disorders are significantly more well-known among diabetics, but it surely is highly probable„Q„R„Qc (p. 28). Eating disorders pose a serious health risk to those with IDDM. Lowering or skipping insulin doses gives these people a special method of losing weight. According to Cheryl Rock and Kathryn Zerbe (1995), the dietary restrictions focus on food, and increased body awareness of diabetics are risk factors for an eating disorder. Insulin withholding can cause severe health complications, and diabetes „Q„R„Qcheightens the risks of mortality associated with eating disorders„Q„R„Qc (Rock &amp; Zerbe, 1995, p. 81). According to Irvin (1997), „Q„R„Qcinsulin purging„Q„R„Qc, (reducing or withholding insulin to control one„Q„R„Qcs weight) is now „Q„R„Qcrecognized in DSM IV„Q„R„Qcs diagnostic criteria for bulimia„Q„R„Qc (p. 28).
This sections will provide a quick glance at every study. All of your studies varied while in the subjects and methods put to use. Some specifically studied eating disorders, whilst others looked at eating problems or disordered eating. Some studied the two. All within the studies also examined other aspects associated with eating disorders or diabetes. (Note: this critical evaluate specifically focuses on eating problems and/or disorders, diabetes, and insulin misuse as a result of these are the basic things in these studies.)
„Q„R„QcEating Disorders in Young Adults with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Study„Q„R„Qc compared the prevalence of eating disorders among a sample of IDDM patients plus a sample of non-diabetics. The diabetic group consisted of 46 men and 54 women, in addition to the control group consisted of 67 non-diabetic women only. Every subject was given an eating disorder examination to measure clinical attributes of eating disorders. Those with diabetes were being given an interview adapted to distinguish behavior simply motivated by diabetes. All subjects also completed an eating attitudes examination. Fairburn et al. found no significant difference within the prevalence of eating disorders among diabetic women and non-diabetic women. None with the men met criteria for an eating disorder. A good number of within the diabetic women underused insulin to control their weight, and four out in the 6 at the moment doing so had an eating disorder.
In „Q„R„QcDisordered Eating Behavior and Microvascular Complications in Young Women with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc, young women with IDDM were being studied at baseline and four to 5 years later to get hold of the „Q„R„Qcprevalence and persistence of disordered eating behavior„Q„R„Qc (Rydall et al. 1997, p. 1849). The participants were being 121 girls, ranging in age from 12-18, with IDDM. Each individual completed a self-report survey of eating attitudes and behavior at baseline. According to Rydall et al. (1997), „Q„R„Qcbehavior relating to eating and weight psychopathology„Q„R„Qc was assessed at baseline and at follow-up with the Diagnostic Survey for Eating Disorders (p. 1850). This questionnaire was adapted to include items specifically relating to diabetes. According to Rydall et al. (1997), eating behavior at baseline and follow-up was categorized into „Q„R„Qcthree mutually exclusive, hierarchical categories: highly disordered, moderately disordered, and nondisordered eating„Q„R„Qc (p. 1850). Ninety-one women participated at follow-up.
Rydall et al. (1997) found „Q„R„Qcintentional omission or underdosing of insulin and dieting for weight loss„Q„R„Qc increased in prevalence from baseline to follow-up (p. 1852). At baseline, 26 with the 91 young women had highly disordered eating behavior that persisted in 16 and improved in ten. In the 65 with normal eating at baseline 14 had disordered eating at follow-up. 12 subjects at baseline and 30 at follow-up reported omission or underdosing of insulin to lose weight.
With the article, „Q„R„QcInsulin Misuse by Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated by Eating Disorders Does Not Favorably Change Body Weight, Body Composition, of Body Fat Distribution„Q„R„Qc, the relationship concerning improper use of insulin among type 1 diabetics mellitus (IDDM) and eating disorders was investigated. Subjects had been 90 women who had type 1 diabetes for at least a single 12 months. They were being divided into three groups: clinical (all DSM-III-R criteria met), subclinical (criteria partially met), and control (f-r-e-e of eating disorders). Diagnoses of eating disorders ended up dependant upon DSM-III-R criteria and confirmed by clinical interview applying the validated Eating Disorder Examination. According to Affenito et al. (1998), the Bulimia Examination Revised was administered to just about every subject to „Q„R„Qcassess severity and frequency of bulimic behavior„Q„R„Qc (p. 687). Attitudes and behaviors regarding insulin misuse have been determined by clinical interview. The outcome showed the women with eating disorders (clinical and subclinical) misused insulin to some greater extent to control weight than those without eating disorders. Nearly 50 % in the women with eating disorders reported misuse of insulin.
The aim of „Q„R„QcEating Disorders and Maladaptive Dietary Insulin Management among Youths with Childhood-onset Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and insulin misuse among IDDM youths. Girls and boys ranging in age from 8-13 were being assessed on numerous measures two to three weeks after IDDM onset and at countless follow-ups over the next eight to fourteen years. Eating disorders were being diagnosed by implementing the Interview Schedule for Children and Adolescents (ICS) which comprises symptoms that are flags for achievable eating disorders. 3 from the 79 subjects had a DSM-III eating disorder. Pollock et al. (1995) further reported that every single of your 3 had „Q„R„Qcserious dietary indiscretion and repeated insulin omission„Q„R„Qc (p. 294). Six others had symptoms of problematic eating behavior. According to Pollock et al. (1995) every one particular from the youths with eating problems had at least „Q„R„Qcone episode of pervasive noncompliance with diabetes care„Q„R„Qc (p. 295).
POPULAR AND ACCEPTED IMPLICATIONS
This section discusses the implications of these studies, showing how they vary in popularity and rationale. Most belonging to the articles had benefits that just one might possibly expect. Fairburn et al. Rydall et al. and Affenito et al. all implied that eating disorders and/or problems are fairly general among the IDDM population. This is in accordance with the expectations formed from the empirical relationship amongst IDDM and eating disorders. It appears sensible that eating disorders would be frequent among this population due to the special diet imposed on diabetics and their elevated body awareness. Those with diabetes also have a method of controlling weight by reducing insulin doses readily presented to them.
Some implications of these articles are not accepted so easily. Pollock et al. (1995) suggest that only a compact percentage of young adults have a blend of diabetes and eating disorders or eating problems. This idea is absolutely not only unpopular on the grounds that it goes against the very common expectations mentioned higher than, but also given that eating disorders are thought to be essentially the most frequent among the subjects„Q„R„Qc age selection (16-26 years old when assessed for eating disorders) of this study.
Another implication that is certainly unpopular is Fairburn et al.„Q„R„Qcs (1991) summary that eating disorders are not significantly more everyday among diabetic women than non-diabetic women. The findings and implications of this study contrast those of loads of other studies on this topic. It may be argued that these successes are due to the efforts within the experimenters to study a representative diabetic sample as well as a non-diabetic control group. According to Fairburn et al. (1991), there are no satisfactory facts for the prevalence of eating disorders with the community and handful of other studies have included control groups. It is workable that these methodological differences account with the findings of this study together with the implications drawn from them.
A particular basic implication among all within the studies isn't really perfectly recognized by the public. Although the misuse of insulin among IDDM subjects was well-known in all of these studies, it is simply not seen as a popular problem outdoors for the medical profession. According to Fairburn et al. (1991), „Q„R„Qcinsulin misuse isn't generally thought to be normal, and omission or underuse of insulin specifically for weight control has received small attention outside the house clinical reports of patients with eating disorders„Q„R„Qc (p. 21). These studies suggest that the practice is widespread among IDDM patients (mostly women), and according to Affenito et al. (1998), it is just not confined to those that have a clinical eating disorder. The misuse of insulin may sound rational due to the increased risk of eating disorders among diabetics and their accessibility to insulin.
SIMILARITIES IN STUDIES, DIFFERENT IMPLICATIONS
Many of the studies had similar methods and/or subjects, but different end results and implications. The subjects in „Q„R„QcEating Disorders in Young Adults with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Study„Q„R„Qc along with the subjects at follow-up in „Q„R„QcEating Disorders and Maladaptive Dietary Insulin Management among Youths with Childhood-onset Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc had been similar in sex and age, but the findings were being different. Fairburn et al. (1991) found that a wide range of within the diabetic women had eating disorders and disturbed eating, although no men did. Pollock et al. (1995) contrastly found only a very small percentage from the IDDM subjects had eating disorders or problems, and one-third within the subjects with eating problems were being male.
The difference in prevalence of eating disorders and problems suggested in these studies may be due to the criteria that Pollock et al. put into use to determine an eating disorder and eating problem. To the purpose of their study Pollock et al. (1995) determined that an eating problem „Q„R„Qcrequired the joint presence of maladaptive eating and repeated insulin misuse„Q„R„Qc (p. 293). Inside the Fairburn et al. study, insulin misuse was not required for an eating problem. A particular could argue that a diabetic may have disordered eating without misusing insulin, and therefore it should not be a requirement. Pollock et al. (1995) applied „Q„R„Qccomprehensive psychiatric evaluations and differential diagnosis„Q„R„Qc to determine eating disorders (p. 293). This method of assessment is far more extensive than what would be done in a very clinical setting. The criteria and methods made use of by Pollock et al. may have excluded subjects that would otherwise be considered for an eating problem or disorder. Pollock et al. (1995) also considered misuse of insulin as being the total omission of insulin rather than the omission or reduction of insulin like most other studies. Contrastly, with the Fairburn et al. (1991) study misuse of insulin was defined as „Q„R„Qcunderusing or even omitting insulin specifically to control weight„Q„R„Qc (p. 18). The difference in criteria utilized for insulin misuse may also explain the differences found on this measure.
Fairburn et al. (1991) and Affenito et al. (1995) both of those compared the misuse of insulin among IDDM patients with eating disorders and IDDM patients without eating disorders. According to Fairburn et al. (1991) there was no significant difference inside misuse of insulin among the groups. Affenito et al.„Q„R„Qcs good results suggest that the misuse of insulin is a great deal more typical among diabetics with eating disorders than among those without them. Just one could argue that the difference found by Affenito et al. is due to demographic differences around the groups. Affenito (1998) et al. found the women without eating disorders had been „Q„R„Qcmore educated, had a little more professional occupations, and ended up added probable to be married„Q„R„Qc compared to those without eating disorders (p. 687). No significant differences existed among the groups on the Fairburn et al. study. It could in fact be argued that these differences are due to differences with the comparison groups which no real differences exist.
This section evaluates the top notch of every study. Many of the studies have powerful features that are worth mentioning. Every single of these studies have at least an individual weakness that lowers the value of their findings.
In two on the studies special concern was given to the instruments second hand to measure eating disorders and problems among the diabetic subjects. Fairburn et al. (1991) made intensive efforts to go beyond the shortcomings of similar studies. According to Fairburn et al. (1991), the Eating Disorder Examination chosen was „Q„R„Qcadapted to distinguish behavior motivated by having diabetes plus the demands of treatment from that attributable to an eating disorder„Q„R„Qc (p. 18). Rydall et al. (1997) chosen the Diagnostic Survey for Eating Disorders that was „Q„R„Qcmodified to include diabetes-related items„Q„R„Qc (p. 1850). By taking these extra steps, the authors avoid attributing eating problems and other behaviors to eating disorders when they could simply be the result from the diabetes.
Another important part in the study conducted by Fairburn et al. (1991) is always that they strived to utilize a alot more representative sample of diabetics, and they also implemented a control group of non-diabetics that handful of other studies have put into use. The use of the control group is important considering that, according to Irvin (1997) the prevalence of clinical eating disorders in non-diabetic people is uncertain„Q„R„Qc (p. 17).
Two from the studies did not making the studies blind when it may have been additional effective to do so, also, the result of this may have been bias. In „Q„R„QcInsulin Misuse by Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated by Eating Disorders does not Favorably Change Body Weight, Body Composition, or Body Fat Distribution„Q„R„Qc by Affenito et al. (1998), the Bulimia Examination Revised together with a „Q„R„Qcdetermination of attitudes and behavior regarding misuse of insulin„Q„R„Qc ended up conducted by clinical interview„Q„R„Qc (p. 687). The subjects ended up broken into three groups, together with the interviewer knew if just about every subject was part on the clinical, subclinical, or control group. According to Fairburn et al. (1991), in „Q„R„QcEating Disorders in Young Adults with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Study„Q„R„Qc the eating examination was conducted by investigators, as well as the investigators knew if the subjects had been diabetic or not. The interpreters and interviewers of equally of these studies may have had expectations and stereotypes concerning eating disorders and diabetes. These may have influenced how they rated, scored, or interpreted the subjects relating to the measures made use of.
Fairburn et al. contradict the purpose of their study. According to Fairburn et al. (1991), the purpose of their study was to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders with the entire diabetic and non-diabetic population, but men have been only included during the diabetic sample. By only studying women during the non-diabetic sample, the non-diabetic population is not really fairly represented. The absence of males during the control group may have influenced the successes.
Just a few of your studies had been minimal by problems with their samples. In „Q„R„QcEating Disorders and Maladaptive Dietary Insulin Management among Youths with Childhood-onset Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus„Q„R„Qc the variety of subjects found to have eating problems was too smaller to detect differences on different variables amongst those with and without eating problems. This minimal the authors„Q„R„Qc ability to suggest what factors cause eating problems among IDDM patients. According to Rydall et al. (1997), a drawback of their study was that they lost participants that had highly or moderately disordered eating at baseline. The help and advice provided by these subjects could have contributed greatly to the effects. The loss of participants is actually a drawback in any study.
The experimenters could have avoided other limits of these studies. With the Pollock et al. (1995) study the authors did not focus on „Q„R„Qcall manifestations of diabetes-specific eating problems„Q„R„Qc, and they may have underestimated the rate of these difficulties (p. 297). Unlike Fairburn et al. and Rydall et al. they did not acknowledge the eating problems that may be caused by the diabetes.
Around the Rydall et al. article the authors could have avoided a few of the limits in the study. 1st of all, according to Rydall et al. (1997), eating behavior was only assessed twice over a four to 5 12 months period. This is usually a big gap of time to help when measuring eating disorders among young women. Lots of changes may have occurred in these girls„Q„R„Qc lives between assessments that the authors„Q„R„Qc did not take into consideration. By the time of follow-up even more with the subjects had reached the age of higher risk for eating disturbances, and this alone may have influenced the gains. Another limit was that, according to Rydall et al. (1997), the self-report measure (a questionnaire) had „Q„R„Qclimited established reliability„Q„R„Qc (p. 1853). An important part of every study is to work with an instrument with superior reliability and validity. If these instruments are not made use of, minimal faith could in fact be put inside good results.
This critical evaluation examined four studies on IDDM patients and also prevalence of eating disorders and insulin misuse among them. Special concern would seem warranted among diabetics, considering that, according to Irvin (1997), „Q„R„Qc diabetes could in fact be a natural jumping off position for an eating disorder including a perfect mask for that disorder once it starts„Q„R„Qc (p. 28). Fairburn et al. Rydall et al. and Affenito et al. all agreed that eating disorders occur in a remarkable rate among IDDM patients. Pollock et al. concluded that eating problems and disorders had been not very ordinary among IDDM patients. All within the studies found a higher occurrence of insulin misuse among diabetic subjects with eating problems. Arguments could in fact be made against and in defense in the findings of these studies. Despite one or two effective things within a number of on the studies, every single study had at least 1 weakness of bias, contradiction, or limits in the study.
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jewel001/CollegeWriting/home.htm Previous editions: Creating for School &amp; Show results . 1984-1998; CollegeWriting. info, 1998-2012 6th Edition: 8-1-12, rev. 8-1-13. Textual content, pattern, and photographs copyright 2002-12 by R. Jewell or as noted Permission is hereby granted for nonprofit educational copying and use without a written request. Visuals courtesy of Barry's Clip Art. Clip Art Warehouse. The Clip Art Universe. Clipart Collection. MS Clip Art Gallery and Structure Gallery Live. School Discovery. and Online Clip Art Click listed here to contact the author: Richard Jewell. Questions and suggestions are welcome. <a href=Link report helper</a>

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„A„‚„u„~„t CHAMPION „~„p „Q„€„ƒ„ƒ„y„z„ƒ„{„€„} „‚„„~„{„u „„€„‘„r„y„|„ƒ„‘ „t„p„r„~„€. „S„u, „{„„„€ „‚„p„q„€„„„p„„„ „~„p „ƒ„r„€„v„} „…„‰„p„ƒ„„„{„u „x„~„p„„„ „u„s„€ „…„w„u „„€ „€„t„~„€„}„… „†„y„‚„}„u„~„~„€„}„… „x„~„p„{„…. „X„u„}„„y„€„~ „„„„€ „ƒ„u„|„Ž„ƒ„{„p„‘ „„„u„‡„~„y„{„p „{„€„„„€„‚„€„z „}„€„w„~„€ „„€„|„Ž„x„€„r„p„„„Ž„ƒ„‘ „r„€ „r„ƒ„u „r„‚„u„}„u„~„p. „A„€„|„Ž„Š„y„~„ƒ„„„r„€ „y„x „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„}„€„z „p„s„‚„€„„„u„‡„~„y„{„y „€„„ Champion „r„ƒ„u„ƒ„u„x„€„~„~„p „y „t„€„„€„|„~„‘„u„„ „ƒ„u„q„‘. „S„p„{„p„‘ „„„u„‡„~„y„{„p „{„p„{: „@„„‚„p„„„€„‚„ „}„€„w„u„„ „q„„„„Ž „y„ƒ„„€„|„Ž„x„€„r„p„~„p „r „€„q„‚„p„q„€„„„{„y „x„u„}„|„y. „B „„€„|„y„r„u „r„p„Š„y„‡ „|„…„w„p„u„{ „|„u„s„{„€ „ƒ„„‚„p„r„y„„„ƒ„‘ „„„p„{„€„z „p„s„‚„u„s„p„„ „€„„ „}„p„ƒ„„„u„‚„q„‚„u„~„t„p Champion „{„p„{: „N„p„ƒ„€„ƒ„ „„€„r„u„‚„‡„~„€„ƒ„„„~„„u.„M„p„s„p„x„y„~ champion „r „R„p„}„p„‚„u „„‚„u„t„ƒ„„„p„r„|„‘„u„„ „~„u „„„€„|„Ž„{„€ „r„„Š„u„„u„‚„u„‰„y„ƒ„|„u„~„~„„z „„„€„r„p„‚ „~„€ „y „t„‚„…„s„y„u „r„y„t„ „p„s„‚„u„s„p„„„€„r „~„p„„‚„y„}„u„‚: „Q„p„ƒ„„„|„y„„„u„|„y „q„u„~„x„y„~„€„r„„u. „X„E„M„P„I„O„N „„€„}„€„s„p„u„„ „r„p„} „r „‚„p„q„€„„„u „y „‚„u„}„€„~„„„u „r „t„€„}„u „y „ˆ„u„~„y„„ „r„p„Š„u „}„~„u„~„y„u.„L„„q„p„‘ „„„u„‡„~„y„{„p „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„„„v„~„~„p„‘ „€„„ „„„€„‚„s„€„r„€„s„€ „q„‚„u„~„t„p CHAMPION „‚„p„q„€„„„p„u„„ „{„p„{ „‰„p„ƒ„ „y „‚„u„t„{„€ „„€„t„r„u„‚„s„p„u„„„ƒ„‘ „‰„p„ƒ„„„€„}„… „‚„u„}„€„~„„„….„H„p „q„€„|„u„u „„€„t„‚„€„q„~„€„z „y„~„†„€„‚„}„p„ˆ„y„u„z „}„€„w„~„€ „€„q„‚„p„„„y„„„Ž„ƒ„‘ „~„p „€„†„y„ˆ„y„p„|„Ž„~„„z „ƒ„p„z„„ „}„u„s„p„q„‚„u„~„t„p champion.„O„†„y„ˆ„y„p„|„Ž„~„„z „ƒ„u„‚„r„y„ƒ„~„„z „ˆ„u„~„„„‚ - <a href=Link„‰„u„}„„y„€„~ „R„p„}„p„‚„p</a>„R„{„y„t„{„p 2,40% „€„„ „ƒ„„„€„y„}„€„ƒ„„„y „|„„q„€„s„€ „„„€„r„p„‚„p, „…„ƒ„„u„z „x„p„q„‚„p„„„Ž „ƒ„r„€„ „ƒ„{„y„t„{„….

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„E„ƒ„|„y „B„ „‚„u„Š„y„|„y „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y "„‚„„‰„p„s „x„p„t„~„u„z „„€„t„r„u„ƒ„{„y „„‚„‘„}„€„z" „r „y„~„„„u„‚„~„u„„ „}„p„s„p„x„y„~„u „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „}„p„Š„y„~ Mercedes E280 autocomponent63.ru - „„„„€ „r„„ƒ„€„ƒ„{„€„‰„u„ƒ„„„r„u„~„~„„u „t„u„„„p„|„y, „x„~„p„„‹„y„u „ƒ„r„€„u „t„u„|„€ „ƒ„„u„ˆ„y„p„|„y„ƒ„„„ „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„€„„„p „x„p„{„p„x„p. „P„€„„„‚„u„q„~„€„ƒ„„„Ž „{„…„„y„„„Ž „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „r„€„x„~„y„{„p„u„„ „‚„u„s„…„|„‘„‚„~„€, „r„u„t„Ž „p„r„„„€„}„€„q„y„|„y „y„x„~„p„Š„y„r„p„„„„ƒ„‘ „‰„p„ƒ„„„‘„}„y. „I „ƒ „„„„y„} „ƒ„€„s„|„p„ƒ„~„ „r„ƒ„u „r„|„p„t„u„|„Ž„ˆ„ „p„r„„„€„}„€„q„y„|„u„z. „Q„„~„€„{ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „p„r„„„€ „r „Q„€„ƒ„ƒ„y„y „„u„ƒ„„„‚ „y „„‚„€„ƒ„„„€„‚„~„„z, „ƒ „„„„y„} „„„p„{„w„u „r„ƒ„u „ƒ„€„s„|„p„Š„p„„„„ƒ„‘. „I„}„u„~„~„€ „y„x-„x„p „„„„€„s„€ „„€„t„q„€„‚ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „‚„p„r„~„€ „{„p„{ „y „„€„y„ƒ„{ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „„€ „p„r„„„€„‚„p„x„q„€„‚„p„} „}„€„w„u„„ „q„„„„Ž „„„‚„…„t„~„„}. „N„€ „„„€„|„Ž„{„€ „~„u „t„|„‘ „„„u„‡, „{„„„€ „€„q„‚„p„„„y„|„ƒ„‘ „r „~„p„Š „}„p„s„p„x„y„~ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „p„r„„„€„}„€„q„y„|„u„z autocomponent63.ru. „E„ƒ„|„y „B„ „y„‹„u„„„u „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „€„„‚„u„t„u„|„u„~„~„„‡ „}„€„t„u„|„u„z „p„r„„„€, „p„~„p„|„€„s„y „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{, „p„r„„„€„‚„p„x„q„€„‚ „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{, „t„u„Š„u„r„„u „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{, „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „r „K„y„~„u„|„u, „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „r „R„p„}„p„‚„u „q„…„t„Ž„„„u „…„r„u„‚„u„~„~„, „‰„„„€ „B„p„} „„€„r„u„x„|„€. „K„p„„„p„|„€„s „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „~„p „~„p„Š„u„} „ƒ„p„z„„„u „„‚„€„ƒ„„ „y „…„t„€„q„u„~. „A„€„|„u„u „„„€„s„€, „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „{ „B„p„Š„u„}„… „r„~„y„}„p„~„y„ „Š„y„‚„€„‰„p„z„Š„y„z „p„ƒ„ƒ„€„‚„„„y„}„u„~„„. „E„t„y„~„ƒ„„„r„u„~„~„€„u, „‰„u„s„€ „‰„u„s„€ „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „~„u „r„ƒ„„„‚„u„„„y„„„Ž „„„„€ „q/„… „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „y „t„u„„„p„|„y „ƒ„€„}„~„y„„„u„|„Ž„~„€„s„€ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „„€„ƒ„{„€„|„Ž„{„… „}„ „s„p„‚„~„„„y„‚„…„u„} „r„„ƒ„€„{„€„u „{„p„‰„u„ƒ„„„r„€. „N„u „~„…„w„~„€ „q„€„|„Ž„Š„u „ƒ„„‚„p„Š„y„r„p„„„Ž „… „„€„y„ƒ„{„€„r„y„{„p, „s„t„u „~„p„z„„„y „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „€„†„y„ˆ„y„p„|„Ž„~„„z „ƒ„p„z„„, „„„€, „‰„„„€ „B„ „y„ƒ„{„p„|„y „„„„€ autocomponent63.ru.
„I„„„u„‚„~„u„„ „M„p„s„p„x„y„~ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z: <a href=Link„p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „€„†„y„ˆ„y„p„|„Ž„~„„z „ƒ„p„z„„ „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{</a>

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„E„ƒ„|„y „B„ „‚„u„Š„y„|„y „„‚„y„€„q„‚„u„ƒ„„„y "„‚„„‰„p„s „„u„‚„u„t„~„u„z „„€„t„r„u„ƒ„{„y" „r „y„~„„„u„‚„~„u„„ „}„p„s„p„x„y„~„u „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „p„r„„„€ SsangYong Chairman autocomponent63.ru - „„„„€ „r„„ƒ„€„ƒ„{„€„‰„u„ƒ„„„r„u„~„~„„u „t„u„„„p„|„y, „‡„€„‚„€„Š„y„u „„‚„€„†„u„ƒ„ƒ„y„€„~„p„|„ „y „q„„ƒ„„„‚„€„„„p „x„p„{„p„x„p. „P„€„„„‚„u„q„~„€„ƒ„„„Ž „{„…„„y„„„Ž „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „r„€„x„~„y„{„p„u„„ „„u„‚„u„€„t„y„‰„u„ƒ„{„y, „r„u„t„Ž „}„p„Š„y„~„ „y„x„~„p„Š„y„r„p„„„„ƒ„‘ „‰„p„ƒ„„„‘„}„y. „I „ƒ „„„„y„} „ƒ„€„s„|„p„ƒ„~„ „r„ƒ„u „p„r„„„€„r„|„p„t„u„|„Ž„ˆ„. „Q„„~„€„{ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „r „~„p„Š„y „t„~„y „„u„ƒ„„„‚ „y „€„s„‚„€„}„u„~, „ƒ „„„„y„} „„„p„{„w„u „„„‚„…„t„~„€ „~„u „ƒ„€„s„|„p„ƒ„y„„„Ž„ƒ„‘. „I„}„u„~„~„€ „r „ƒ„y„|„… „„„„€„s„€ „„€„t„q„€„‚ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{ „„„p„{ „w„u „{„p„{ „y „„€„y„ƒ„{ „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „„€ „p„r„„„€„‚„p„x„q„€„‚„p„} „}„€„w„u„„ „€„{„p„x„p„„„Ž„ƒ„‘ „~„u„„‚„€„ƒ„„„„}. „N„€ „~„u „t„|„‘ „„„u„‡, „{„„„€ „€„q„‚„p„„„y„|„ƒ„‘ „r „~„p„Š „}„p„s„p„x„y„~ „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „}„p„Š„y„~ autocomponent63.ru. „E„ƒ„|„y „B„ „y„‹„u„„„u „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y, „p„~„p„|„€„s„y „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{, „p„r„„„€„‚„p„x„q„€„‚, „~„u„t„€„‚„€„s„y„u „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „t„|„‘ „p„r„„„€, „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „K„y„~„u„|„Ž, „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „R„p„}„p„‚„p „ƒ„‰„y„„„p„z„„„u, „B„p„} „„€„r„u„x„|„€. „K„p„„„p„|„€„s „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„u„z „t„|„‘ „p„r„„„€„}„€„q„y„|„u„z „~„p „~„p„Š„u„} „ƒ„p„z„„„u „„‚„€„ƒ„„ „y „„€„~„‘„„„u„~. „A„€„|„u„u „„„€„s„€, „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „{ „B„p„Š„u„}„… „r„~„y„}„p„~„y„ „Š„y„‚„€„‰„p„z„Š„y„z „p„ƒ„ƒ„€„‚„„„y„}„u„~„„. „E„t„y„~„ƒ„„„r„u„~„~„€„u, „‰„u„s„€ „‰„u„s„€ „x„t„u„ƒ„Ž „~„u „r„ƒ„„„‚„u„„„y„„„Ž „„„„€ „q/„… „x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „y „t„u„„„p„|„y „ƒ„€„}„~„y„„„u„|„Ž„~„€„s„€ „„‚„€„y„x„r„€„t„y„„„u„|„‘, „r„u„t„Ž „}„ „s„p„‚„~„„„y„‚„…„u„} „r„„ƒ„€„{„€„u „{„p„‰„u„ƒ„„„r„€. „N„u „~„…„w„~„€ „q„€„|„Ž„Š„u „ƒ„„‚„p„Š„y„r„p„„„Ž „… „„€„y„ƒ„{„€„r„y„{„p, „s„t„u „~„p„z„„„y „p„r„„„€„x„p„„‰„p„ƒ„„„y „€„†„y„ˆ„y„p„|„Ž„~„„z „ƒ„p„z„„ „t„|„‘ „y„~„€„}„p„‚„€„{, „„„€, „‰„„„€ „B„ „y„ƒ„{„p„|„y „„„„€ autocomponent63.ru.
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